गुरुवार, 17 दिसंबर 2020

Caste System - An Exotic Concept

By Shyam Chand 

Book Excepts. Translation is mine.

 Exotic Origins of Varna and Caste System

Golvalkar writes, "Hindu people, they said, is the Virat Purush, the Almighty manifesting Himself. Though they did not use the word Hindu, it is clear from the following description of the Almighty in the Purush Sukta where it is stated that the Sun and the Moon are his eyes and the Stars and Skies are created from His Nabhi (naval) and Brahmin is the head, King hands, Vaishya the thighs and Shudra ae the feet. This means that the people who have this fourfold arrangement i.e. the Hindu People is our God."

Caste system is the most articulated hegemonic system in which parasites have been living on the sweat and blood of the producers. This system, the product of human ingenuity, 'divinely ordained', is the most undivinely graded degraded social structure, which has reduced a vast section of Hindu society to the status of dehumanised destitutes.

The genesis of caste system can be traced to Manusmriti drawing inspiration from interpolated Purush Sukta of Rig Veda. According to the Bhagwat Purana, there was "One Veda One God and One Caste."

Moreover, diction, enunciation, construction, meters, etc of Purush Sukta are different from those of Rig Veda. Eminent scholars have reached the conclusion that its incorporation is interpolation; an act of stuffing and stuffing is transparently transposition.

Purush Sukta was stuffed into Rig Veda which does not agree with the original Rig Veda (10.137.1):

Ye enlightened men, 

Uplift once more

The fallen and the degraded 

The lowly and the lorn.

Ye illustrious men,

Uplift him who has sinned

Help him to begin life anew.

In this respect, the essential teaching of the Rig Veda is not different from the Bible.

Manu must be a widely travelled man or he must have been in the touch with the people engaged in foreign trade. The doctrine of metempsychosis  was adopted by Roman warriors to encourage their soldiers to fight without any fear of death as souk did not die but would pass into another body at death. This theory in not Vedic.

Manu, it seems, had heavily borrowed from the Druids. Human sacrifices, belief in god, life of a recluse, retiring in forest in old age, ritual puriry, etc were the basic articles of faith of the Druids. In fact, our Brahmins are the replicas of first cousins of Druids.

The Brahmanic orientation of Hindu society, different from the Vedic tradition, has grown over millennia into a hydra-headed monster which all the reformers, put together, have not been able to subdue it. Manu's Social System, Criminology of Brahminology, is like a parasite creeper (Amar Bel) thrown on Hinduism. As a matter of fact, the more the reformers tried to nurse the magnificent Hindu tree, the more the parasite creeper became greener and greener. It has sucked very vital of Vedic religion, criminalized, fragemented and fractured Hindu Society.

Manu, the self appointed Hindu law giver (like the present self appointed custodians of Hindu culture of RSS band) borrowed everything from foreign social systems and codified laws in his Smriti. The entire system is exogenous and exotic made exoteric by the priestly class by arrogating to itself the right of ritual purification. This self-appointed mystagogue "divinely ordained" his social system which created a priestly mafia with vice-like grip on Hindu mind and psyche.

Manu Smriti is an inhuman monument of India's terrible triple tragedy. It has dehumanised and despiritualised vast section of our society; it has created enmity between different Varnas or castes; and it has been the cuase of India's slavery of centuries. Moreover, all they tyrants of world history from Changez Khan to Hitler have not tyrannised the mankind as much as Manu's Varna system had made us devoid of manumision! Offsprings of the sea pirates who killed seamen and plundered their wealth have been civilised. Icons of Apartheid have been broken and champions of racial segregation in USA have become human beings. But here the priestly class without conscience, is hard to be humanised and Hinduised. Brahmanism and fascism are two sides of the same coin.

Even the word Hindu is exotic. People living in the east of River Sindhu were called Sindhus by Persians. In Persians letter S is pronounced H. Hence Sindhus became Hindus.

It is mix of irony and tragedy that every crime against humanity has the sanction of Dharma or stamp of spirituality.

It is interesting to note that Manu, in the first instance, allowed sub-castes or gotras ot Brahmins at random. It is not necessary that the Brahmins, who are Vasishths or Bhardwais are really the descendants of these sages. Anybody left out could become a Kashyap. It can be proved historically.

It is a false presumption that people with the sub-caste or gotra bearing same sage's appellation are the direct descendents of that sage. 

There is evidence that mass conversions had taken place before the Varna System came into being.

More than 99.9 % Brahmins are neither Aryans nor they are the descendants of Rishis after whose name they claim their origins.

It is also evident that the before these Rishis there was no caste system.

Social Reforms

In the Bhakti period, Hindu and Sufi Saints tried to break the barriers of caste system. What Saints like Nanak, Kabir and Ravidas did was undone by Tulsidas with women and Shudra-bashing.

In modern times many social reformers did try to loosen the steel frame of caste system and its inexorable laws. Rajaram Mohan Roy, Davindranath Tagore and Rabindranath Tagore had to face social ostracism with stoic silence. Ranade was excommunicated by the Shankaracharya. Swami Dayanand was denounced untouchability and caste system was administered poison. Survival of Hinduism is mainly due to these social reformers who were mainly Brahmins but with conscience. When Gandhi ji started a movement against untouchability, he was received with black flags, brickbats and shower of abuses. ..Orthodox Hindus denounced Gandhi ji and declared him a threat to Hinduism.

Historically speaking Manu does not recogise Dalits (untouchables) as Hindus. He refuses to have fifth Varna. He speaks of them as Varna-Bah'yas, those outside the Varna system. That is the reason no reform is successful. When Dalits are not a part of Hindu society, they remain separate and segregated. Ainapure Shastri, leader of the orthodox Hindus said that the Untouchables were related to Hindus as a man is related to his shoe. "Attachment and detachment can't be said to form part of one whole." A Dalit is like a woman - paer ki juti, a footwear.

Caste system is a forced segregation, not a choice. The concept of ritual purity-pollution is unethical. To expect ritual purity from a person who is denied education and spiritual evolution, is not only morally wrong, it shows social and moral bankruptcy. Moreover, ritual purity of outward, inward is moral purity.

The morality is not the concern of gods and  beasts. When Brahmins declared themselves as gods on earth, they exempted themselves from any censure and notion of morality. Moreover, Manu arms Brahmins with an enabling clause as well as with an escape clause.  A Brahmin can do any thing immoral and remain a Brahmin. If he learns Persian and becomes a Maulvi in a Mosque he is still a Brahmin. If the Brahmin minister of Nizam of Hyderabad offers mandatory Namaz five times a day, once out of palace gate, he becomes a Brahmin again.

The Myth of Purity of Blood

To defend caste system to maintain purity of blood is a myth and that myth is exploded by the word Chandel - a product of the union between a Brahmin woman and Shudra father. Human nature is as it is, no race on earth has been able to maintain purity of blood, India is no exception. D.R. Bhandarkar in his paper Foreign Elements in Hindu Population, says, "There is hardly a class or caste in India which has not a foreign strain in it. There is admixture of alien blood not only among the warrior classes - Rajputs and Marathas - but also among Brahmins who are under happy delusion that they are free from all foreign elements."

In the same way, Brahmanical concept of pollution has polluted all other religions. As a matter of fact Brahmanism is a cosmic pollutent. It pollutes every faith it comes in contact with. Caste is an anathema to Christianity, Islam and Sikhism. But Chaturvarna needle, used unsterillized has injected contagious and poisonous caste germ in them in India.

Who are Dalits?

In the initial stage, members of one family belonging to different Varna were living together under one roof. It was the Gurukul system, which created the problem. In the Gurukuls, the wards were given the gradation according to their aptitude, ability and proficiency which determined their Varna. Giving sacred thread and the performance of Upananya Ceremony, were Guru's right. Whether it was by design or by manipulation, after some time people were placed in the category of Brahmins, apprehending their wards being graded as Shudra, arrogated to themselves the right to give sacred thread and perform Upananya ceremony. After sometime, the Varna came to be based on birth and not on worth.

People who revolted against this system were kept out of the Varna-system. They were deprived of three rights - right to education, right to own property and right to hold arms. It produced social, mental, moral and psychological degradation. Deprived of the right to own property, they had to depend on others for their livelihood reducing them to dehumanized destitutes. 

According to Dr Ambedkar, Shudras were one of the Aryan communities of the solar race, they were part of Indo-Aryan society; there was a time there were three Varnas and Shudra were part of Kshatriyas. There was continuous feud between Kshatriyas and Brahmins in which Kshatriyas committed atrocities on Brahmins. There was hatred between both the communities and Brahmins refused to invest Shudra with sacred thread.

It is just possible that some of the defeated tribes whom priestly class wanted to use as menial workers were kept outside of the Varna system. There is a classical example of Chauhans. After the defeat of Prithvi Raj at the battle of Tarain in 1192, Ghori king kept in captivity some of his soldiers as prisoners who were not accepted back in Hindu fold as they had been touched by the Muslims. There are many Chauhans among Dalits.

Any man who was excommunicated from his Varna for any reason was welcome in the category of untouchables. It is also possible that in Post-Mauryan period, people who opposed reimposition of caste system were forced to do menial or mechnical jobs. Monopoly in profession seems to be post Mauryan concept that became the cause of India's slavery.

NOW, new research in the field of human genome has proved that all human come from one single parentage. Will it change our system? Let us hope.

One thing is certain in democracy. More the noose of the caste system gets tightened, more is the revolt against the hegemonic system. Now, people know that the Purush Sukta has no scientific basis and it is an interpolation, deceit and stigma on Hindu society. There is no basis of Purush Sukta. It is pseudo-scientific gibberish!


<< Counter Revolution  Contents  Exploiting Rama and Krishna >>

Saffron Fascism - Counter Revolution

  By Shyam Chand

Book Excepts. Translation is mine.

India before RSS

Before we take up the formation of RSS, let us trace the social and religious history of India preceding that period.

Rajaram Mohan Roy founded his Brahmo Samaj in 1828 in the spirit of true service to God. "The true way of serving God is to good to man." 

"My continued controversies with the Brahmins (he himself was a Brahman) on the subject of their idolatry and superstition, and my interference with their custom of burning widows and other pernicious practices, revived and increased their animosity against me with renewed force... The ground, which I took in all my controversies was not that of opposition of Brahmanism, but to a perversion of it; and I endeavoured to show that idolatry pf the Brahmins was contrary to the practice of their ancestors, and the principles of the ancient books and authorities, which they profess to revere and obey."

Rajaram Mohan Roy, known as the Father of Modern India, asked his fellow Hindus, "in what manner is the soul absorbed in the deity? What relation does it bear to the Divine Essence? Nor will youths be fitted to be better members of society by which the Vedantic doctrines, which teach them to believe that all visible things have no real existence; that as father, brother, etc., have no actual entity, they consequently deserve no real affection, and therefore, the sooner we escape from them and leave the world the better."

Swami Dayanand Saraswati, a Brahmin, founded Arya Samaj in North India. He said, "Idol worship is not sanctioned by the Vedas, nor is untouchability, nor child-marriage, nor subjection of women to unequal with men. The study of Vedas should be open to all, not just to Brahmins, and a man's caste should be in accordance with his merits."

 Hidden Agenda

In their book, "Brotherhood In Saffron", Walter K. Anderson and Shridhar D. Damle, have mentioned that: "Brahmins the founding members of the RSS, were four in number which is usually considered to be no good figure for the Hindus. They were Dr. Hedgewar, B. S. Munje, Baharao Savarkar (Brother of Vinayak Savarkar) and B. B. Thalkar. They recruited young Brahmins graduates fresh from colleges for the services of their community. When the number reached ninety-nine, they assembled in a forest (!!) to take some esoteric oath which is a mystery till today!. It is surprising why the oath was taken in a forest away from the city. What transpired between the activists of RSS; what was cooked; and what was served, RSS still keeps it a well-guarded secret! This is known as "hidden agenda". 

Dr. Ambedkar writes, " Nazis trace their ancestry from Nietzsche and regard him as their spiritual parent. Hitler has himself photographed beside a bust of Nietzsche; he takes the manuscripts of the master under his own guardianship; extracts are chosen from Nietzsche's writings and loudly proclaimed at the ceremonies of Nazism, as the New German Faith. Nor is the claim by the Nazis' spiritual ancestry with Nietzsche denied by his near relations. Nietzsche's own cousin Richard Ochler approvingly says that Nietzsche's thought is Hitler in action and that Nietzsche was foremost pioneer of the Nazi accession to power."

There is only difference between Manu and Nietzsche. Manu's superman (Brahmin) is by birth and Nietasche's superman is by worth.

Neither Nietzsche, nor Hitler realized that Manu's social philosophy was inhuman, immoral, vicious and divisive which one day would tear apart the Germany and India as well. But superman appealed to Hitler and inspired him. Thus Hitler's Nazism is based on Manusmriti.

The very idea of RSS is shrouded in shrewed, solipsistic sophistry. It is a camouflage for Brahmanism. Brahmanism, which is masquerading as Hindutava and which is its turn is masquerading as cultural nationalism. National, from the Hitler's Party, stands for Rashtriya. Hitler's S.S. for Swayamsevak Sangh. Siff hand salute and Swastika are Nazis symbols.

Hitler's contempt for Jews matches RSS contempt for minorities.

Like Hilter's S.S., Vishwa Hindu Parishad and Bajrang Dal are saffron hard liners to enforce 'Hilter's moral and ethical laws'.

Hitler's dream of Pan-German is the real inspiration to RSS concept of Akhand Bharat - India from Iran to Malaysia and from Tibet to Sri Lanka - conveying ominous and inauspicious portetents, but nonetheless good enough to exploit the gullibles.

In theory anybody could join RSS, provided he conformed to the "behavioural standard considered proper by RSS leaders."  Those standards continue to reflect to a large extent, the Maharastrian Brahmin values of the founders of RSS. Brahmanical values of RSS were 'Priestly' and 'Kingly'. These Brahmins were still basking in the reflected glory of Peshwas who in their later times reduced the Dalits to a miserable condition, worse than that of animals. RSS made full use of Hinduism in northern India as it used Brahmanism in Maharashtra.

When Hindu Mahasabha organized civil disobedience movement (1938-39) against the repressive measures against Hindus taken by the Nizam of Hyderabad, Dr. Hedgewar refused to lend support to the Hindu cause under the pretext that it was a cultural organization. No doubt, Savarkar was constrained to say, "The epitah of the RSS volunteer will be that he was born, he joined RSS and died without accomplishing anything."

Patriotism, nationalism and Bharat Mata are the very patriotic words RSS activists utter with every breath. The history of RSS is that of treason against India. RSS remained aloof during Quit India movement. Dr. Hedgewar gave full support to the British. Golwalkar says, "Anti-Britishism is equated with Patriotism." Well said! RSS was afraid of ban on its activities and it kept 'its work clearly within bounds of law as every law abiding institution should.'

RSS did not fight or raise its voice against the Partition of India. On the other hand, its counter part and equally most communal organization, Jamaat-e-Islami, under Maulana Mas'udi along with his softas, at least opposed the two-nation theory of Savarkar with Jinnah adopted.

Hypocrisy! Thy name is RSS!

There are some questions, which RSS owes the nation to answer. RSS defines Hindutava as cultural nationalism. Did cultural nationalism prevent RSS to defend Hindus in Hyderabad against the Nizam's atrocity? Did allegiace to British Crown form part of RSS culture? Was fight against the partition of country not included in its concept of Akhand Bharat? is hatred against the minories part of RSS culture?

Any impartial observer would come to the conclusion that the fear of ban on RSS kept it away from freedom struggle. Inaction is also action, says Gita. Moreover, bullying tactics are an integral part of RSS. A bully is a person who touches the feet of the powerful and kicks the weak.

Why Golwalkar makes a reference to some Muslim elected to Punjab Legislative Assembly in 1957. This alone Muslim was Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, nicknamed Frontier Gandhi, a staunch congressman, a staunch Muslim, he fought for the freedom of the country and gone to jail when Golwalkar and his RSS were hiding in their sectarian pigeon hole at Nagpur. He was also elected in 1962 and again in 1968 to Haryana Vidhan Sabha and was industry minister in first Bansi Lal government. He was very honest and an amiable person. It is a matter of pride and privilege for me that I happened to be his colleague.

Two years before Jinnah came out with Savarkar's Two-nation theory in 1940, Golwalker in 1938 wrote, "The non-Hindu people in Hindustan, must either adopt Hindu culture and language, must learn to respect and hold in reverence the Hindu religion, must entertain no ideas, but those of glorification of the Hindu race as culture. .. may stay in the country wholly, subordinated to the Hindu nation, claiming nothing, deserving no privileges, far less any preferential treatment - not even citizen's rights."

 Dr. Mukerjee's successor was Muli Chandra Sharma, a Delhi Lawyer whose only qualification was that he was son of MM Sharma, a prominent member of Hindu Maha Sabha, who opposed the resolution of Savarkar and Pt Madan Mohan Malviya to erase out untouchability and treat Dalits at par with Hindus. But Muli Chandra Sharma was a man of different doxy. Before he resigned as president of Bhartiya Jan Sangh he exposed RSS hypocrisy by declaring that RSS has no commitment to secular nationalism and democracy! Even a senior leader, Balraj Madhok alleged a "fascist attitude within the Jan Sangh".

 Brahmanism and fascism are the trademarks of RSS. When RSS people talk of Hindutava, patriotism and Akhand Bharat, one is apt to say:

Their double speak, double dealing, deceit and doring,

Can put to shame, in their grave, even Geobbel and Gering.

 


<< Introduction  Contents Caste System - An Exotic Concept >>

Saffron Fascism by Shyam Chand

Contents


 

1. Introduction

2. Counter Revolution

3. Caste System - An Exotic Concept

4. Assassination of the Mahatma

5. Misappropriation of National Symbols

6. God's Wrath

7. Culture Uncultivated

8. Punch in Thought

9. Vedic Lores, Not Scientific

10. RSS and Fascism

11. Nation on Rajor's Edge

12. The Day After

13. Bibliography.

Introduction >>

Saffron Fascism - Introduction

 

 By Shyam Chand

 Book excerpts. Hindi translation is mine.

I am not a historian, nor do I claim to be a writer of any standing. In my small effort I have tried to analyse the events as I perceive them. My perceptions based on historical facts and apprehensions, have proved genuine when analysed in the backdrop of state sponsored genocide in Gujarat.

I have traced the history of RSS which is founded by four Brahmin members against the backlash of Non-Brahmin Movement. Its Hindutava is nothing but the Brahmanical thrust given to the spiritual heritage, we got as a gift of the genius of some thinkers, who were free from the lethal biases and prejudices, RSS now legitimize.

Hindutava as culture nationalism, RSS claims to protect and defend, is to dissimulate its most uncultured communalism and subversive activities against the State under its badge of pseudo-nationalism.

RSS is a fascist mafia. According to Tagore, fascism is "an exact counterpart" Brahmanism. RSS brings before our mind very distribing similarities with Hitlar's Nazism. Hitlar was inspired, through Nietzsche, by Manusmriti and Manu's superman (Brahmin) imposing his will on the weak.

 RSS is an organized hypocrisy practicing vice but praising virtue; an institutionalized terrorism forcing its will on the weaker sections of the society, an criminalized communalism dividing the society between Hindus and minorities on the one hand and the one caste against the other by its subversive activities, and a mythological falsehood invoking antediluvian supernatural elements on the one hand and drawing inspiration from Goebbels to touch upon "the baset instincts of man and cover them with nobility."

Nehru described Jan Sangh (now BJP) as an illegal child of RSS. This "illegal child" exposed the deciet of RSS of being only a cultural organization.

Double-speak, double standard and deceit as the traits of RSS. 

When more than 75% Indians are Hindus, there is no need for any self appointed mafia to protect Hindu culture. RSS is a parasite creeper on Indian society sucking its very vitals. When these vendors of Hindutava close their shop, all fundamentalist organizations would go out of business.

RSS like fascism does not have a conscience. It does not have soul either. It is hate against all the sections of the society that runs though its veins (See it's secret circular no. 411 in the chapter RSS and Fascism.)

With the rise of RSS, there is a corresponding increase in the corruption, communalism, crimes, atrocities against women. Murders, Ruffians, Scamsters and Scoundrels now call the shot.

Nehru described RSS as "anti national", "communal", "violent" and "subversive". He did not foresee any danger to the unity and integrity of India from communalism but from Hindu fundamentalism masquerading as Hindutava which in fact is anti-Hinduism, anti-Hindu culture and anti-natonal. State sponsored genocide in Gujarat and demolition of Babri Masjid have vindicated Nehru.

RSS is the child of Hitler's Nazism. Hitler wrote Mein Kempf and put his agenda before people of Germany. He was mad and his madness was equally and quickly matched with the madness of the people of Germany. RSS has hidden agenda and its madness is now being matched with the madness of the Hindutava fanatics.

Primay objective of fascism is to grab power at any cost - Nation, Humanity and Peace. RSS like fascism has inherent cannibalistic instincts. Germans and their justice could not stop Hitler from committing crimes against humanity and destroyed Germany. German justice allowed Hitler to be the greatest scourge of mankind. In India, criminals of Babri Masjid are beyond the reach of law.

Today India is facing with the twin menace of terrorism - terrorism from across the border and terrorism of twin menance of Hindutava and Muslim fundamentalisms at home. We have to fight every menace for our future generations and for winning place of pride for India in the comity of nations.

Today, the situation is alarming. Farmers are committing suicide. The poor are dying of starvation. Both were prime agents, aided by our agriculture scientists for bringing the green revolution and saving India from shame of carrying begging bowls in her hand.

The masses need education, health, housing and jobs to contribute to the national development and increase their purchasing power.

I earnestly appeal to all the saner and secular elements in the society to come forward to challenge and confront the menace of dual fundamentalism. Let us take pledge to build a new India of the dreams of our freedom fighters who behind the bars in the dark of dungeons dreamt for a "New Dawn" for us.

<< Contents Counter Revolution >>

गुरुवार, 8 अक्तूबर 2020

सत्यार्थ प्रकाश - स्वामी दयानन्द सरस्वती

 स्वामी दयानन्द सरस्वती द्वारा रचित सत्यार्थ प्रकाश का प्रथम संस्करण 1975 और दूसरा संस्करण 1882 में प्रकाशित हुआ। 

स्वामी दयानन्द के शब्दों में इस ग्रन्थ की रचना का मुख्य प्रयोजन सत्य-सत्य अर्थ का प्रकाश करना है, अर्थात् जो सत्य है उस को सत्य और जो मिथ्या है उस को मिथ्या ही प्रतिपादन करना सत्य अर्थ का प्रकाश समझा है। वह सत्य नहीं कहा ता जो सत्य के स्थान में असत्य और असत्य के स्थान में सत्य का प्रकाश किया जा य। किन्तु जो पदार्थ जैसा है, उसको वैसा ही कहना , लिखना और मानना सत्य कहाता है। जो मनुष्य पक्षपाती होता है, वह अपने असत्य को भी सत्य और दूसरे विरोधी मतवाले के सत्य को भी असत्य सिद्ध करने में प्रवृत्त हो ता है, इसलिए वह सत्य मत को प्राप्त नहीं हो सकता। इसी लिए विद्वान् आप्तों का यही मुख्य काम है कि उपदेश वा लेख द्वा रा सब मनुष्यों के सा मने सत्याऽसत्य का स्वरूप समर्पित कर दें, पश्चात् वे स्वयम् अपना हिताहित समझ कर सत्यार्थ का ग्रहण और मिथ्यार्थ का परि त्याग करके सदा आनन्द में रहें।

इस ग्रन्थ में स्वामी जी ने वैदिक धर्म की स्थापना करने और हिन्दू धर्म में प्रचलित अनेक अन्धविश्वासों तथा कुरीतियों के साथ-साथ ईसाई, इस्लाम एवं अन्य कई पन्थों व मतों का खण्डन भी किया है।

यह ग्रन्थ 14 चौदह समुल्लास अर्थात् चौदह विभागों में रचा गया है, जो निम्न लिखित है --

पूर्वार्द्ध

  1. प्रथम समुल्लास में ईश्वर के ओंकाराऽऽदि ना मों की व्याख्या।
  2. द्वितीय समुल्लास में सन्तानों की शिक्षा।
  3. तृती य समुल्लास में ब्रह्मचर्य, पठन-पा ठनव्यवस्था, सत्यासत्य ग्रन्थों के नाम और पढ़ने-पढ़ाने की रीति।
  4. चतुर्थ समुल्लास में विवाह और गृहा श्रम का व्यवहार।
  5. पंचम समुल्लास में वानप्रस्थ और संन्यासा श्रम का विधि।
  6. छठे समुल्लास में राजधर्म।
  7. सप्तम समुल्लास में वेदेश्वर-विषय।
  8. अष्टम समुल्लास में जगत् की उत्पत्ति, स्थिति और प्रलय।
  9. नवम समुल्लास में विद्या, अविद्या, बन्ध और मोक्ष की व्याख्या।
  10. दशवें समुल्लास में आचार, अनाचार और भक्ष्याभक्ष्य विषय।

उत्तरार्द्ध

  1. एकादश समुल्लास में आर्य्यावर्त्तीय मत मतान्तर का खण्डन मण्डन विषय।
  2. द्वादश समुल्लास में चारवाक, बौद्ध और जैनमत का विषय।
  3. त्रयोदश समुल्लास में ईसा ई मत का विषय।
  4. चौदहवें समुल्लास में मुसलमानों के मत का विषय।


इसमें 10 दश समुल्लास पूर्वार्द्ध और 4 चार उत्तरार्द्ध में हैं। अन्त्य के दो समुल्लास और पश्चात् स्वसिद्धान्त किसी कारण से प्रथम नहीं छप सके, वे द्वितीय संस्करण छपे हैं। और चौदह समुल्लासों के अन्त में आर्यों के सनातन वेदविहित मत की विशेषतः व्याख्या लिखी है, जिसको स्वामी जी यथावत् मानते है।

 डाउनलोड

 सत्यार्थ प्रकाश पीडीफ डाउनलोड करने के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करें

रविवार, 4 अक्तूबर 2020

अन्तिम अधिवेशन में भाषण

  विश्व धर्म महासभा, शिकागो, 27 सितंबर 1893

 

विश्‍व धर्म महासभा एक मूर्तिमान तथ्य सिद्ध हो गई हैं और दयालु प्रभु ने उन लोगों की सहायता की हैं, तथा उनके परम निःस्वार्थ श्रम को सफलता से विभूषित किया हैं, जिन्होंने इसका आयोजन किया।

उन महानुभावों को मेरा धन्यवाद हैं, जिनके विशाल हृदय तथा सत्य के प्रति अनुराग ने पहले इस अद्भुत स्वप्न को देखा और फिर उसे कार्य रूप में परिणत किया। उन उदार भावों को मेरा धन्यवाद, जिनसे यह सभा मंच आप्लावित होता रहा हैं। इस प्रबुद्ध श्रोतृ-मंडली को मेरा धन्यवाद, जिसने मुझ पर अविकल कृपा रखी हैं और जिसने मत-मतांतरों के मनोमालिन्य को हल्का करने का प्रयत्न करने वाले हर विचार का सत्कार किया। इस सम-सुरता में कुछ बेसुरे स्वर भी बीच-बीच में सुने गये हैं। उन्हें मेरा विशेष धन्यवाद, क्योंकि उन्होंने अपने स्वर-भिन्नता से इस सम-रसता को और भी मधुर बना दिया हैं।

धार्मिक एकता की सर्वसामान्य सामूहिक बुनियाद के विषय में बहुत कुछ कहा जा चुका हैं। इस समय मैं इस संबंध में अपना मत आपके समक्ष नहीं रखूँगा। किन्तु यदि यहाँ कोई यह आशा कर रहा हैं कि यह एकता किसी एक धर्म की विजय और बाकी धर्मों के विनाश से सिद्ध होगी, तो उनसे मेरा कहना हैं कि 'भाई, तुम्हारी यह आशा असम्भव हैं।' क्या मैं यह चाहता हूँ कि ईसाई लोग हिन्दू हो जाएँ? कदापि नहीं, ईश्वर भी ऐसा न करें!  क्या मेरी यह इच्छा हैं कि हिंदू या बौद्ध लोग ईसाई हो जाएँ? ईश्वर इस इच्छा से बचाए।

बीज भूमि में बो दिया गया और मिट्टी, वायु तथा जल उसके चारों ओर रख दिये गये। तो क्या वह बीज मिट्टी हो जाता हैं, अथवा वायु या जल बन जाता हैं? नहीं, वह तो वृक्ष ही होता हैं, वह अपनी वृद्धि के नियम से ही बढ़ता हैं – वायु , जल और मिट्टी को पचाकर, उनको उद्भिद पदार्थ में परिवर्तित करके एक वृक्ष हो जाता हैं।

ऐसा ही धर्म के संबंध में भी हैं। ईसाई को हिंदू या बौद्ध नहीं हो जाना चाहिए, और न ही हिंदू अथवा बौद्ध को ईसाई ही। पर हाँ, प्रत्येक को चाहिए कि वह दूसरों के सार-भाग को आत्मसात् करके अपना पोषण करें और अपनी विशेषता की रक्षा करते हुए अपने धर्म के अनुसार विकास करें।

इस धर्म महासभा ने जगत के समक्ष यदि कुछ प्रस्तुत किया हैं, तो वह यह हैं:–  उसने सिद्ध कर दिया हैं कि शुद्धता, पवित्रता और दयाशीलता पर किसी संप्रदाय-विशेष का एकाधिकार नहीं हैं, एवं प्रत्येक धर्म ने श्रेष्ठ एवं अत्यंत उन्नत चरित स्‍त्री-पुरूषों को जन्म दिया हैं। अब इन प्रत्यक्ष प्रमाणों के बावजूद भी कोई ऐसा स्वप्न देखें कि अन्यान्य सारे धर्म नष्ट हो जाएंगे और केवल उसका धर्म ही जीवित रहेगा, तो उस पर मैं अपने हृदय के अंतराल से दया करता हूँ और उसे स्पष्ट बतलाए देता हूँ कि शीघ्र ही सारे प्रतिरोधों के बावजूद प्रत्येक धर्म की पताका पर यह लिखा रहेगा – 'सहायता करो, लड़ो मत' ; 'पर-भाव-ग्रहण, न कि पर-भाव-विनाश' ; 'समन्वय और शांति , न कि मतभेद और कलह!'

बौद्ध धर्म – हिन्दू धर्म की पूर्णता

  विश्व धर्म महासभा, शिकागो, 26 सितंबर 1893

मैं बौद्ध धर्मावलंबी नहीं हूँ, जैसा कि आप लोगों ने सुना हैं, पर फिर भी मैं बौद्ध हूँ। यदि चीन, जापान अथवा सीलोन उस महान तथागत के उपदेशों का अनुसरण करते हैं, तो भारत वर्ष उन्हें पृथ्वी पर ईश्वर का अवतार मानकर उनकी पूजा करता हैं। आपने अभी-अभी सुना कि मैं बौद्ध धर्म की आलोचना करने वाला हूँ, परंतु उससे आपको केवल इतना ही समझना चाहिए। जिनको मैं इस पृथ्वी पर ईश्वर का अवतार मानता हूँ, उनकी आलोचना ! मुझसे यह संभव नहीं। परन्तु बुद्ध के विषय में हमारी धारणा यह हैं  कि उनके शिष्यों ने उनकी शिक्षाओं को ठीक-ठीक नहीं समझा। हिंदू धर्म (हिंदू धर्म से मेरा तात्पर्य वैदिक धर्म हैं) और जो आजकल बौद्ध धर्म कहलाता हैं, उनमें आपस में वैसा ही संबंध हैं, जैसा यहूदी तथा ईसाई धर्मों में। ईसा मसीह यहूदी थे और शाक्य मुनि हिंदू। यहूदियों ने ईसा को केवल अस्वीकार ही नहीं किया, उन्हें सूली पर भी चढ़ा दिया, हिंदुओं ने शाक्य मुनि को ईश्वर के रूप में ग्रहण किया हैं और उनकी पूजा करते हैं। किंतु प्रचलित बौद्ध धर्म में तथा बुद्धदेव की शिक्षाओं में जो वास्तविक भेद हम हिंदू लोग दिखलाना चाहते हैं, वह विशेषतः यह हैं कि शाक्य मुनि कोई नई शिक्षा देने के लिए अवतीर्ण नहीं हुए थे। वे भी ईसा के समान धर्म की पूर्णता के लिए आए थे, उसका विनाश करने नहीं। अंतर इतना हैं कि जहाँ ईसा को प्राचीन यहूदी नहीं समझ पाये। जिस प्रकार यहूदी प्राचीन  व्यवस्थान की निष्पत्ति नहीं समझ सके, उसी प्रकार बौद्ध भी हिंदू धर्म के सत्यों की निष्पत्ति को नहीं समझ पाये। मैं यह बात फिर से दुहराना चाहता हूँ कि शाक्य मुनि ध्वंस करने नहीं आए थे, वरन् वे हिंदू धर्म की निष्पत्ति थे, उसकी तार्किक परिणति और उसके युक्तिसंगत विकास थे।

हिंदू धर्म के दो भाग हैं – कर्मकांड और ज्ञानकांड। ज्ञानकांड का विशेष अध्ययन संन्यासी लोग करते हैं।

ज्ञानकांड में जाति भेद नहीं हैं। भारतवर्ष में उच्च अथवा नीच जाति के लोग संन्यासी हो सकते हैं, और तब दोनों जातियाँ समान हो जाती हैं। धर्म में जाति भेद नहीं हैं;  जाति तो एक सामाजिक संस्था मात्र हैं। शाक्य मुनि स्वयं संन्यासी थे, और यह उनकी ही गरिमा हैं कि उनका हृदय इतना विशाल था कि उन्होंने अप्राप्य वेदों से सत्यों को निकाल कर उनको समस्त संसार में विकीर्ण कर दिया। इस जगत में  सब से पहले वे ही ऐसे हुए, जिन्होंने धर्म-प्रचार की प्रथा चलायी – इतना ही नहीं, वरन् मनुष्य को दूसरे धर्म से अपने धर्म में दीक्षित करने का विचार भी सब से पहले उन्हीं के मन में उदित हुआ।

सर्वभूतों के प्रति, और विशेषकर  अज्ञानी तथा दीन जनों के प्रति अद्भुत सहानुभूति में ही तथागत का महान गौरव सन्निहित हैं। उनके कुछ शिष्य ब्राह्मण थे। बुद्ध के धर्मोपदेश के समय संस्कृत भारत की जनभाषा नहीं रह गयी थी। वह उस समय केवल पंडितों के ग्रंथों की ही भाषा थी। बुद्धदेव के कुछ ब्राह्मण शिष्यों ने उनके उपदेशों का अनुवाद संस्कृत भाषा में करना चाहा था, पर बुद्धदेव उनसे सदा यही कहते – 'मैं दरिद्र और साधारण जनों के लिए आया हूँ, अतः जनभाषा में ही मुझे बोलने दो।' और इसी कारण उनके अधिकांश उपदेश अब तक भारत की तत्कालीन लोकभाषा में पायें जाते हैं।

दर्शनशास्त्र का स्थान चाहे जो भी दो, तत्त्व ज्ञान का स्थान चाहे जो भी हो, पर जब तक इस लोक में मृत्यु मान की वस्तु हैं, जब तक मानव हृदय में दुर्बलता जैसी वस्तु हैं, जब तक मनुष्य के अंतःकरण से उसका दुर्बलता जनित करूण क्रंदन बाहर निकलता हैं, तब तक इस संसार में ईश्वर में विश्वास कायम रहेगा।

जहाँ तक दर्शन की बात हैं, तथागत के शिष्यों ने वेदों की सनातन चट्टानों पर बहुत हाथ-पैर पटके, पर वे उसे तोड़ न सके और दूसरी ओर उन्होंने जनता के बीच से उस सनातन परमेश्वर को उठा लिया, जिसमें हर नर-नारी इतने अनुराग से आश्रय लेता हैं। फल यह हुआ कि बौद्ध धर्म को भारतवर्ष में स्वाभाविक मृत्यु प्राप्त करनी पड़ी और आज इस धर्म की जन्मभूमि भारत में अपने को बौद्ध कहने वाली एक भी स्‍त्री या पुरुष नहीं हैं।

किंतु इसके साथ ही ब्राह्मण धर्म ने भी कुछ खोया – समाज-सुधार  का वह उत्साह, प्राणिमात्र के प्रति वह आश्‍चर्यजनक सहानुभूति और करुणा, तथा वह अद्भुत रसायन, जिसे बौद्ध धर्म ने जन-जन को प्रदान किया था एवं जिसके फलस्वरूप भारतीय समाज इतना महान् हो गया कि तत्कालीन भारत के संबंध में लिखने वाले एक यूनानी इतिहासकार को यह लिखना पड़ा कि एक भी ऐसा हिंदू नहीं दिखाई देता, जो मिथ्या भाषण करता हो;  एक भी ऐसी हिंदू नारी नहीं हैं, जो पतिव्रता न हो।

हिंदू धर्म बौद्ध धर्म के बिना नहीं रह सकता और न बौद्ध धर्म हिंदू धर्म के बिना ही। तब यह देखिए कि हमारे पारस्परिक अलगाव ने यह स्पष्ट रूप से प्रकट कर दिया कि बौद्ध, ब्राह्मणों के दर्शन और मस्तिष्क के बिना नहीं ठहर सकते, और न ब्राह्मण बौद्धों के विशाल हृदय के बिना। बौद्ध और ब्राह्मण के बीच यह अलगाव भारतवर्ष के पतन का कारण हैं। यही कारण हैं कि आज भारत में तीस करोड़ भिखमंगे निवास करते हैं, और वह एक सहस्र वर्षों से विजेताओं का दास बना हुआ हैं। अतः आइए, हम ब्राह्मणों की इस अपूर्व मेधा के साथ तथागत के हृदय, सज्जनता और अद्भुत लोक हितकारी शक्ति को मिला दें।